Is A Sexless Marriage At The Age Of 28 Normal?

Marriage is considered a sacred bond between two individuals who are committed to living their lives together. However, when the physical intimacy in a marriage starts to fade away or becomes non-existent, it can cause distress and uncertainty among partners.

This article aims to explore the question of whether a sexless marriage at the age of 28 is normal or not.

While there is no definitive answer to this question, several factors can contribute to a lack of sexual activity in a marriage. These include stress, fatigue, hormonal imbalances, health issues, communication problems, and differing expectations regarding sex.

It’s essential to understand that each relationship is unique and what may be acceptable for one couple might not work for another. Therefore, it’s crucial to identify the underlying causes behind a lack of sexual activity and find ways to address them effectively.

Understanding The Importance Of Physical Intimacy In Marriage

Physical intimacy is an essential aspect of a healthy marriage. It involves more than just sexual intercourse; rather, it encompasses all forms of physical touch that foster emotional connection between partners.

Studies show that couples who engage in regular physical intimacy experience higher levels of relationship satisfaction and overall well-being. In contrast, the absence of physical affection can lead to feelings of loneliness, isolation, and even depression.

Emotional connection is closely linked with physical touch in a marriage. Regular displays of affection such as hugging, kissing, holding hands, or cuddling help strengthen the bond between partners. These gestures communicate love and care without words and promote feelings of security and trust within the relationship.

When both partners feel emotionally connected, they are more likely to be open about their needs and desires regarding physical intimacy.

Physical touch also has numerous health benefits for both partners. It helps reduce stress levels by releasing oxytocin, a hormone associated with relaxation and bonding. Couples who engage in frequent physical contact have been shown to have better immune systems and lower blood pressure than those who do not.

Furthermore, studies suggest that individuals who receive regular hugs from their partner have less anxiety and feel less pain compared to those who do not receive this type of affection.

Different factors affect sexual activity in a marriage, including individual preferences, health conditions, work schedules, family responsibilities, among others. Therefore it is important for each couple to discuss these issues openly and honestly to find ways to maintain a satisfying level of physical intimacy in their relationship while acknowledging any obstacles they may face along the way.

Different Factors Affecting Sexual Activity In A Marriage

Sexual activity is an essential component of any healthy marriage, and the absence of it can be alarming. However, several factors affect sexual activity in marriages, including cultural influences and personal preferences.

Cultural influences play a significant role in shaping sexual behavior in marriages. In some cultures, sex before marriage is discouraged or deemed immoral, resulting in low levels of sexual activity among couples. Also, religious beliefs may dictate how often couples should engage in sexual activities. These values impact marital sexual satisfaction and could result in a sexless marriage at 28 years old.

Personal preferences also contribute to the level of sexual activity within marriages. Some individuals have lower libidos than their partners or prefer different forms of intimacy that don’t involve penetration. It’s not uncommon for couples with differing preferences to experience challenges regarding frequency and quality of intimate encounters.

Additionally, previous experiences such as trauma or abuse may impact one’s willingness to engage sexually even within a loving relationship like marriage. Other reasons such as health issues or medication side effects can also suppress libido and lead to lessening interest towards sexual activities.

In conclusion, culture and personal preference influence each individual’s approach towards intimacy that ultimately affects the amount of sexual activity experienced by married couples. Understanding these factors’ roles is crucial for determining appropriate solutions when facing difficulties concerning this matter.

While cultural influences and personal preferences are critical determinants affecting the level of sexual activity within marriages, stressors such as work pressure can also negatively impact relationships leading to further complications on this issue.

The Role Of Stress In A Sexless Marriage

The phrase, “A picture is worth a thousand words,” accurately depicts the role of stress in a sexless marriage. It’s a silent killer that slowly erodes away at the foundation of intimacy and passion between couples. Stress can manifest itself in various forms such as financial worries, job insecurity, health concerns, or even general life changes like moving to a new city or starting a family. The cumulative effect of these factors can be overwhelming for both partners, leading to disconnection and sexual dissatisfaction.

Managing stress is crucial when it comes to maintaining a healthy relationship with your partner. Identifying the root cause(s) of stress and working together to find solutions can alleviate some of the pressure on the relationship. This may involve seeking professional help from therapists or counselors who specialize in marital therapy. Additionally, finding support from friends or family members who have gone through similar experiences can provide an outlet for discussing challenges while also receiving helpful feedback.

To further illustrate how stress impacts sexual activity within marriages, consider the following table:

Common Stressors Impact on Sexual Activity
Financial Strain Decreased desire
Health Concerns Physical limitations
Infertility Emotional distance
Job Insecurity Lack of energy

As seen in this table, different stressors affect sexual activity in unique ways. For example, financial strain can lead to decreased desire due to worry and anxiety about money issues; whereas infertility may create emotional distance between partners which negatively impacts sexual connection.

In order to combat the effects of stress on sexual activity within marriages, it’s important for couples to prioritize self-care activities that promote relaxation and reduce tension. This could include meditation practices, regular exercise routines or hobbies that bring joy and fulfillment outside of work responsibilities.

Moving forward into our next section on ‘the effect of fatigue on sexual activity,’ we will explore another common factor that contributes to low sexual desire within relationships.

The Effect Of Fatigue On Sexual Activity

Fatigue is a common phenomenon that affects daily life activities, including sexual activity. It can be caused by various factors, such as work-related stress or insufficient sleep.

Managing fatigue involves making certain lifestyle changes that promote better sleeping habits and reducing workload. As lack of sleep results in low energy levels and reduced libido, it is essential to ensure at least 7-8 hours of uninterrupted rest every night. Additionally, engaging in regular physical exercise has shown to increase energy levels and improve mood, leading to increased sexual desire.

Psychological barriers surrounding sex are often related to negative experiences or beliefs about the act itself. These could include past traumas or feelings of inadequacy regarding sexuality.

Addressing these underlying issues through therapy or counseling can help eliminate any potential roadblocks to intimacy caused by anxiety or depression.

In conclusion, managing fatigue and addressing psychological barriers are key steps towards improving sexual activity in individuals experiencing a sexless marriage at an early age like 28. While physical changes like getting enough sleep and exercising regularly have a direct impact on increasing libido, it’s important not to overlook the mental aspect of this issue either. By seeking professional help for any underlying emotional concerns surrounding intimacy, couples can overcome hurdles together.

Hormonal imbalances can also contribute significantly to decreased libido and sex drive among young adults experiencing a sexless marriage. Understanding how hormones affect one’s body functions as they relate to sexual health will provide insight into possible solutions for those struggling with diminished interest in sex due to hormonal fluctuations.

Hormonal Imbalances And Their Impact On Intimacy

Fatigue can have a significant effect on sexual activity, leading to decreased libido and even sexual dysfunction. However, there are many other factors that can contribute to difficulties with intimacy in relationships.

One common issue is hormonal imbalances, which can affect both men and women of all ages. Understanding hormonal changes is important for anyone experiencing issues with their sex life.

For example, low levels of testosterone in men can result in reduced libido, as well as erectile dysfunction and depression. Meanwhile, women may experience irregular periods or infertility due to imbalances in estrogen or progesterone.

If you are concerned about the impact of hormonal imbalances on your intimate relationship, it’s important to seek medical advice from a qualified healthcare provider. There are many treatment options available depending on the underlying cause of your hormone imbalance including lifestyle modifications such as diet and exercise or medication.

Ultimately, taking care of one’s health is essential for maintaining a fulfilling sex life at any age. By understanding how hormones work and seeking appropriate medical attention when needed, individuals can take steps towards improving their overall quality of life -both inside and outside the bedroom- while avoiding potential complications associated with untreated health conditions that may negatively influence sexual function.

Health Issues And Their Influence On Sexual Activity

When it comes to sexless marriages, age is not the only factor that matters. Several underlying reasons could explain why a couple might experience less sexual activity in their marriage.

Understanding sexual desire and considering medical conditions are two essential factors for couples to explore when trying to increase intimacy.

A common misconception about sexual desire is that it should remain constant throughout one’s life. However, research shows that several factors can affect an individual’s libido, including stress levels, depression, anxiety or relationship issues.

While some individuals may have a higher level of sexual desire than others, understanding what influences this feeling can help improve relationships.

Medical conditions also play a significant role in sexual activity within a marriage. Certain illnesses such as diabetes, arthritis and heart disease can cause fatigue or pain which reduces the willingness or ability of an individual to engage in intimate activities with their partner. Medical treatments like chemotherapy can also impact libido by reducing hormone production leading to decreased interest in sexual intercourse.

In conclusion, having a sexless marriage at 28 years old does not necessarily mean there is something wrong with either spouse; rather many health issues and other factors could be contributing to this situation.

It is crucial for couples affected by low-intimacy situations to seek professional guidance from doctors and counselors who specialize in treating these sorts of problems. Ultimately, addressing any physical or emotional challenges through open communication will benefit both partners’ overall well-being while increasing the likelihood of being more sexually active together as time goes on without creating unrealistic expectations that lead towards disappointment later on down the road.

The significance of communication in a marriage cannot be overstated when dealing with sensitive topics such as intimacy levels between spouses. Regularly checking-in with each other regarding how they’re feeling physically and emotionally creates opportunities for deeper conversations about improving intimacy in their romantic lives over time without placing too much pressure on one person alone responsible for initiating those discussions themselves entirely independent of outside support networks beyond just themselves always available if needed.

The Significance Of Communication In A Marriage

Effective communication is crucial in any relationship, especially for couples who are experiencing a sexless marriage. In order to improve their situation, they need to focus on building trust and improving communication with each other.

This means being honest about their feelings, needs, desires, and expectations with one another. Improving communication involves more than just talking; it requires active listening as well. Both parties should practice empathetic listening by putting themselves in the other person’s shoes and trying to understand where they’re coming from.

They should also avoid interrupting or dismissing each other’s concerns and instead work towards finding solutions together. Building trust is equally important when addressing communication problems in a sexless marriage. Trust can be built by keeping promises, following through on commitments, and avoiding behaviors that could undermine the relationship.

Couples can also build trust by practicing open and honest communication without judgment or criticism. In conclusion, improving communication skills and building trust are essential steps towards addressing issues of intimacy in a sexless marriage at 28 years old.

By actively listening to each other’s concerns and working together towards finding solutions, couples can begin to rebuild their connection and rediscover sexual intimacy once again. The next section will explore specific strategies for addressing these communication problems to improve intimacy between partners.

Addressing Communication Problems To Improve Intimacy

As the saying goes, communication is key. In order to improve intimacy within a sexless marriage at the age of 28, it is essential to address any communication problems that may be hindering progress.

Building trust in a marriage requires open and honest dialogue between partners, especially when it comes to discussing sensitive topics such as sexual expectations.

Improving communication can start by setting aside dedicated time for conversations where both partners feel comfortable expressing their thoughts and feelings without judgment or interruption. It may also involve practicing active listening skills, such as repeating back what was said to ensure understanding and validation.

Building trust in a marriage involves not only being truthful but also following through on commitments made. This includes making an effort to prioritize intimacy and working together towards finding solutions rather than placing blame on one another.

By establishing mutual respect and support, couples can begin to build a foundation of trust that allows for vulnerability in all aspects of the relationship.

In summary, improving communication and building trust are crucial steps towards fostering intimacy within a sexless marriage at the age of 28. These efforts require patience, dedication, and a willingness to work together towards common goals.

By creating an environment of openness and honesty, couples can begin to address issues surrounding differing expectations regarding sex and their consequences.

Differing Expectations Regarding Sex And Their Consequences

Addressing communication problems can often help improve intimacy in a relationship. However, differing expectations regarding sex can also be a major cause of strain between partners. It is not uncommon for couples to have different sexual needs and desires, but it becomes an issue when these differences are not addressed and lead to frustration or resentment.

One possible reason for differing sexual expectations is unrealistic societal norms surrounding sex. Many people grow up with the belief that they should be having frequent and mind-blowing sex, which can create pressure to perform and disappointment if those expectations are not met. Additionally, cultural influences play a role in shaping attitudes towards sex, which may vary depending on one’s background or upbringing.

It is important for individuals to recognize their own sexual wants and needs as well as communicate them effectively to their partner. This requires open and honest dialogue about each other’s desires, boundaries, and any potential concerns.

In order to foster this type of communication, here are some helpful tips:

  1. Create a non-judgmental space where both partners feel comfortable expressing themselves.
  2. Practice active listening by giving your full attention to what your partner is saying without interrupting or dismissing their feelings.
  3. Use ‘I’ statements instead of accusatory language to express how you feel.
  4. Be patient with each other as you navigate through potentially sensitive topics.

By talking openly about sexual issues within a relationship, both partners can better understand each other’s perspectives and work together towards finding mutually satisfying solutions. Communication is key in fostering healthy relationships, including those involving physical intimacy.

Incorporating regular conversations about sex into the fabric of the partnership helps alleviate anxiety around discussing intimate matters with a loved one while also allowing both parties room for growth and exploration of previously unspoken fantasies or curiosities.

The Importance Of Talking About Sexual Issues With Your Partner

Open communication is a vital component of any relationship, particularly when it comes to sexual issues.

Many couples are reluctant to discuss their sexual desires and preferences with each other, leading to dissatisfaction or even the breakdown of the relationship.

It is essential that partners engage in open and honest communication about their needs and wants regarding sex.

Sexual fulfillment plays a critical role in maintaining intimacy within a romantic relationship. Failure to address sexual issues can lead to frustration, resentment, and feelings of neglect from both parties.

By talking openly about your expectations and concerns surrounding sex, you can work towards fulfilling each other’s needs while strengthening your bond as a couple.

Incorporating open communication into your relationship may initially feel uncomfortable or difficult for some individuals; however, developing these skills takes practice and patience.

Couples who prioritize discussing intimate topics tend to have stronger relationships overall than those who do not.

Learning effective communication strategies such as active listening and non-judgmental responses can help facilitate productive discussions around sensitive subjects like sex.

Ultimately, approaching sexual matters with openness and honesty is crucial for fostering a healthy intimate connection between partners.

However, despite best efforts at improved communication, some couples may still find themselves struggling with unresolved intimacy issues.

In these cases, seeking professional help from trained therapists or counselors specialized in treating intimacy-related problems can be an excellent next step towards resolving these issues together.

Seeking Professional Help For Intimacy Issues

When a couple experiences a sexless marriage at the age of 28, it can be concerning and lead to feelings of frustration, confusion, and even resentment. If intimacy issues are causing problems in the relationship, seeking professional help may be necessary.

Couples therapy is an effective way for couples to address their sexual dysfunction and improve their overall connection. Couples therapy involves meeting with a licensed therapist who specializes in working with couples experiencing difficulties in their relationship. The goal of this type of therapy is to improve communication between partners and identify any underlying issues that may be contributing to sexual dysfunction or a lack of interest in sex.

By working through these challenges together, couples can learn new ways to communicate and develop strategies for improving intimacy. Sexual dysfunction is common among both men and women of all ages. It can include problems such as low libido, difficulty achieving orgasm, premature ejaculation, erectile dysfunction, pain during intercourse, or vaginismus (painful involuntary contraction of vaginal muscles).

These conditions often have physical causes but can also stem from psychological factors like stress, anxiety or depression. By addressing these underlying causes through individual or couples therapy sessions focused on managing stressors related to sexual performance anxiety or negative self-talk about body image concerns one may experience relief.

In conclusion transitioning into subsequent section topic: Seeking Professional Help for Intimacy Issues – Individual and couples therapy play crucial roles in helping individuals work through sexual issues. In the next section we will explore how therapists use various techniques including cognitive-behavioral interventions , mindfulness-based therapies , psychoeducation around human sexuality & cultural diversity concepts which includes gender identity exploration that facilitate healing within oneself before engaging sexually with another person.

The Role Of Individual And Couples Therapy In Addressing Sexual Issues

Like a ship that has lost its compass, couples in sexless marriages can feel directionless and adrift. However, seeking the help of individual or couples therapy could provide them with significant benefits.

Therapy sessions offer a safe space for individuals to discuss their sexual issues without fear of judgment or blame. A trained therapist can assist both partners in identifying underlying psychological factors contributing to their lack of intimacy.

Couples therapy can also teach new communication skills that enable partners to express themselves more effectively and empathetically. This improved communication helps create an environment where exploring new techniques becomes less daunting and more comfortable.

In addition, therapists often recommend exercises designed to promote trust, closeness, and physical touch between couples who have struggled with intimacy issues. Moreover, it is essential not to view physical intimacy as limited only to intercourse; instead, one should explore alternative forms of physical intimacy.

Couples’ therapy encourages creativity regarding ways that partners may connect physically through non-sexual acts such as hugging, cuddling, massage, or even holding hands while watching a movie. These are all methods by which couples can build trust and emotional connection outside of traditional sexual encounters.

In conclusion, individual and couples therapy plays a vital role in addressing sexual issues within relationships. The benefits of therapy include creating a safe space for open discussions about intimate needs while teaching effective communication skills between partners. Furthermore, exploring alternative forms of physical intimacy allows couples to rebuild trust and emotional connection outside of traditional sexual encounters. The next section will delve into specific examples of these alternative methods for building physical intimacy beyond intercourse.

Exploring Alternative Forms Of Physical Intimacy

For couples who find themselves in a sexless marriage, it is important to understand that physical intimacy can take on many forms beyond just sexual intercourse.

Sensual touch is one such alternative form which involves the use of tactile stimulation to increase emotional closeness and affection between partners. This type of touch includes gentle caressing, cuddling or holding hands, and can be particularly beneficial for women who may require more emotional connection before engaging in sexual activity.

Creative intimacy is another alternative form of physical intimacy that can help reignite passion in a relationship. This involves exploring new ways to connect emotionally and physically with your partner through shared experiences like dancing, cooking together or even taking up a joint hobby.

Engaging in activities that promote teamwork and communication can create a deeper bond between partners while also providing an opportunity to explore each other’s interests and desires.

It is important to note that not all couples will have the same preferences when it comes to physical intimacy, and what works well for one couple may not work for another. Thus, experimenting with different types of sensual touch or creative intimacy techniques can be helpful in discovering what feels best for both partners.

Open and honest communication about needs and desires is crucial when exploring these alternatives as it ensures that both parties feel heard and respected.

In conclusion, while traditional forms of physical intimacy like sexual intercourse are often considered the norm within relationships, there are many alternative forms available that can provide similar levels of emotional connection without necessarily involving sex.

By embracing sensual touch or creative intimacy techniques, couples can deepen their bond while exploring new avenues for pleasure and satisfaction. Understanding that each relationship is unique allows couples to tailor these approaches according to their individual needs and preferences.

Understanding That Each Relationship Is Unique

An interesting statistic to consider is that approximately 15-20% of married couples report having a sexless marriage, which means they have sex less than ten times per year.

However, it is important to note that each relationship is unique and what may be considered normal for one couple may not be the same for another.

It’s essential to understand that every individual has personal preferences when it comes to sexual intimacy.

While some people view sex as necessary in their relationships, others may prioritize emotional connection or other forms of physical affection.

Therefore, there cannot be a universal standard for what constitutes a healthy sexual relationship.

Unique relationships come with different dynamics, boundaries, and expectations surrounding intimacy.

It’s crucial to communicate openly and honestly about your needs and desires with your partner without feeling ashamed or judged.

By doing so, you can work together to create a fulfilling sex life that works for both partners.

In moving forward and finding ways to address sexual issues in a marriage, seeking professional help from therapists or counselors who specialize in couples’ therapy might be useful.

They can provide guidance on improving communication skills, identifying underlying issues affecting intimacy in the relationship, and exploring various options available to improve the quality of sexual experiences between partners.

Moving Forward And Finding Ways To Address Sexual Issues In A Marriage

Sexual issues can be challenging and difficult to navigate, especially if they arise early on in a marriage. However, it is important for couples to address these issues head-on rather than ignore them or hope they will resolve themselves over time.

The following strategies may help couples create a safe space to explore their sexual desires and improve intimacy levels.

Firstly, communication is key when addressing sexual issues within a marriage. Couples should openly discuss their feelings towards sex, what makes them feel comfortable or uncomfortable, and any fantasies they might have. This enables partners to understand each other’s perspectives better while also encouraging vulnerability and trust-building between the couple.

Secondly, creating an environment that feels safe and free of judgment is essential for exploring one’s sexuality fully. It would be helpful if both partners could take responsibility for making this happen by avoiding criticism or negative comments about the other person’s body image or performance during sex.

Thirdly, taking the time to explore each other’s bodies outside of intercourse can help rekindle lost sparks in a sexless marriage. For example, engaging in sensual massages or cuddling sessions can increase fondness and affection between partners without expecting anything more from them sexually.

Lastly, exploring new ideas together as a couple opens up opportunities for adventure in your sex lives. While not all fantasies are meant to become realities necessarily, discussing these thoughts with your partner may alleviate some fears around shame or taboo subjects while spicing things up at the same time.

In conclusion, creating a safe place where open communication exists allows couples an opportunity to explore their sexualities freely without fear of judgement from their spouse. Taking small steps such as touching intimately outside of intercourse slowly builds up comfortability between husbands/wives who’ve grown apart physically over time due to various reasons like stressors at work etcetera thus enhancing closeness again after being distant emotionally because of lack thereof physical intimacy. Exploring fantasies together may open up a world of adventure between partners that could never have existed before, so it’s essential to do this in an environment where both feel safe and free from judgment or ridicule.

Frequently Asked Questions

How Do I Know If My Partner Is Experiencing A Decrease In Sexual Desire?

Sexual desire is an essential part of any intimate relationship, and its absence can cause a lot of distress for both partners. There are several factors that can contribute to the decrease in sexual desire, including hormonal changes, stress, and psychological issues.

If you suspect that your partner is experiencing a decrease in sexual desire, there are ways to reignite it. Communication is key in this situation as discussing one’s feelings with their partner may help identify underlying issues affecting their libido. Additionally, reducing stress levels through exercise or relaxation techniques can improve overall mood and increase sex drive.

However, if these methods do not work, seeking professional advice from a healthcare provider or therapist may be helpful in resolving the issue.

Can Medication Or Birth Control Affect Sexual Activity In A Marriage?

Hormonal imbalances can affect sexual activity in a marriage.

Medications such as birth control pills, antidepressants and blood pressure drugs can cause reduced libido, vaginal dryness or difficulty achieving orgasm.

These effects can lead to relationship issues between partners.

In some cases, the medication may need to be changed or dosage adjusted to alleviate these side effects.

It is important for couples experiencing this issue to communicate with each other and seek medical advice if necessary.

How Do I Approach My Partner About Our Lack Of Physical Intimacy In A Non-Confrontational Way?

When it comes to addressing a lack of physical intimacy in a relationship, approaching the topic can be difficult.

It is important to keep communication lines open and avoid confrontational language.

Relationship counseling may also provide helpful tools for couples who are struggling with this issue.

Some approach tips include setting aside time to talk without distractions, using ‘I’ statements instead of accusatory language, and expressing empathy towards your partner’s feelings.

By working together and seeking professional guidance if necessary, couples can potentially improve their physical connection and strengthen their overall relationship.

What Are Some Alternative Forms Of Physical Intimacy That Can Be Explored In A Marriage?

Like a flower that blooms in unexpected ways, physical intimacy can take on many different forms beyond conventional sexual intercourse.

One alternative option for couples seeking to strengthen their bond is sensual massage, which encourages partners to explore and connect through touch.

Role playing games can also provide an opportunity for couples to step outside of their comfort zones and experiment with new dynamics, helping them find joy and satisfaction in the relationship.

By exploring these diverse options, couples can form deeper connections and gain a greater understanding of each other’s desires and needs.

Is It Common For Couples In Their Late 20s To Experience A Decrease In Sexual Activity?

Couples in their late 20s may experience a decrease in sexual activity due to various factors, such as stress and mental health issues.

As a result, exploring alternative forms of physical intimacy that do not necessarily involve sex can be beneficial for maintaining emotional closeness and intimacy between partners.

These alternatives include non-sexual touch, cuddling, holding hands, and other intimate gestures that promote bonding on a deeper level.

While it is common for couples to go through periods where the frequency of sexual activity decreases or stops altogether, it is important to address any underlying issues and communicate openly with one’s partner about their needs and desires to ensure a healthy relationship dynamic.


Sexual desire can ebb and flow throughout a marriage, and it is not uncommon for couples to experience a decline in sexual activity. Factors such as stress, health issues, medication use or hormonal changes from birth control may all contribute to a decrease in libido.

It is important for partners to communicate openly about their needs and desires without placing blame on one another. In cases where physical intimacy has decreased significantly, alternative forms of intimacy can be explored such as cuddling, kissing, holding hands or engaging in non-sexual activities together.

Ultimately, the success of a marriage hinges on communication and honesty between partners. While there is no definitive answer as to whether a sexless marriage at the age of 28 is normal, it is essential that both individuals feel heard and understood within the relationship.

As the saying goes, ‘communication is key,’ and this holds true especially when discussing intimate matters with your partner.

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