Conflict is a ubiquitous phenomenon that permeates all aspects of human life. Be it at home, in the workplace or even on social media platforms, individuals are bound to encounter situations where conflicts arise. However, when it comes to our relationships with partners and parents, the stakes are higher as these individuals hold significant emotional value in our lives.
Hence, navigating such delicate relationships requires a level of tactfulness and skillful communication that can be challenging for many people. Avoiding conflict with one’s partner and parents may seem like an insurmountable task, but it is essential for maintaining healthy relationships.
In today’s society, where stress levels run high and demands on time are ever-increasing, learning how to navigate conflict effectively has become crucial. This article aims to provide readers with insights into how they can avoid conflict with their partners and parents by identifying potential triggers and developing effective communication strategies.
By adopting these practices, individuals will be able to build stronger bonds with their loved ones while minimizing unnecessary conflicts that could harm those relationships in the long-term.
The Importance Of Healthy Relationships
Healthy relationships are essential for overall well-being and happiness. Characteristics of healthy relationships include trust, effective communication, mutual respect, support, and understanding.
Trust is the foundation of any relationship; it requires honesty and integrity from both parties involved. Effective communication involves active listening and expressing thoughts and feelings without judgment or criticism.
Mutual respect means valuing each other’s opinions, needs, and boundaries while supporting one another in personal growth. Understanding is crucial because every person has unique experiences that shape their worldview. Recognizing these differences can prevent misunderstandings and conflicts in a relationship.
Improving relationship dynamics involves several strategies such as setting realistic expectations, practicing empathy, compromising when necessary, and taking responsibility for actions.
Setting realistic expectations means acknowledging that no one is perfect and allowing room for mistakes to be made. Practicing empathy involves putting oneself in the other person’s shoes to understand how they feel about certain situations.
Compromising when necessary means finding solutions that benefit both parties instead of insisting on being right all the time. Taking responsibility for actions also helps improve relationship dynamics by owning up to mistakes rather than blaming others.
Understanding conflict triggers is an important step towards avoiding conflicts with partners or parents. By identifying potential sources of tension before they arise, individuals can take proactive steps to prevent arguments or confrontations from occurring.
Understanding Conflict Triggers
Having a healthy relationship with your partner and parents is essential for maintaining overall well-being. However, conflicts are inevitable in any relationship, and it can be challenging to avoid them altogether. Conflict arises when there is a disagreement or difference of opinion between two parties. In some cases, these disagreements can escalate into arguments that may cause irreparable damage to the relationship.
Identifying personal triggers is an effective way to prevent conflicts from escalating. Personal triggers refer to those things that make you feel angry or frustrated. It could be something as simple as being criticized or feeling unappreciated.
Once you identify your trigger points, you can learn how to manage them effectively. This will help you control your emotions during tense situations and prevent conflicts from escalating. If you find yourself unable to resolve conflicts on your own, seeking professional help is another option.
A trained therapist can provide valuable guidance and support in identifying the root causes of conflict and developing strategies for resolving them effectively. Therapy sessions also offer a safe space where both parties can express their feelings without fear of judgment or criticism. In conclusion, avoiding conflict with your partner and parents requires effort and commitment from both parties involved.
Identifying personal triggers and seeking professional help are excellent ways to minimize the possibility of conflict escalation. By learning how to navigate through difficult situations calmly, both parties can strengthen their relationships over time. The next section will discuss how developing effective communication skills plays a crucial role in preventing conflicts from occurring in the first place.
Developing Effective Communication Skills
Ironically, despite living with our partners and parents for a significant amount of time, avoiding conflict can still be an arduous task. This is where developing effective communication skills comes into play. Communication plays a crucial role in any relationship and knowing how to communicate effectively can prevent conflicts from arising.
Active listening strategies are one way to develop better communication skills. One should listen attentively without interrupting the other person. Active listening involves giving feedback by paraphrasing what was said to ensure that you understood correctly.
Additionally, repeating back important points or feelings expressed by your partner shows that you value their thoughts and opinions.
Nonverbal communication cues also play a vital role in avoiding conflict. These include maintaining eye contact while speaking, using appropriate facial expressions and body language, and ensuring your tone matches your message’s intent. For example, if someone says they are okay but have tears streaming down their face, nonverbal cues would suggest otherwise.
In conclusion, developing effective communication skills is essential in preventing conflicts with partners and parents alike. By practicing active listening strategies and paying attention to nonverbal communication cues like maintaining eye contact, people can avoid misunderstandings caused by misinterpretation of words or gestures.
The next section will focus on another critical aspect of improving relationships: listening with empathy and understanding how others feel before responding to them appropriately.
Listening With Empathy And Understanding
Active listening involves focusing on what the other person is saying, rather than forming a response.
It is important to demonstrate understanding of the other person’s feelings by making eye contact, nodding, and summarizing the feelings being expressed.
To avoid conflict with a partner or parent, one should strive to maintain an attitude of understanding and empathy while listening.
Utilizing open-ended questions can help to gain further insight into the other person’s feelings, and aid in the resolution of any disagreements.
Communication is an essential aspect of any relationship. However, conflicts may arise as a result of misinterpretation or lack of communication skills.
Active listening is one technique that can be used to avoid conflict with your partner and parents. By paying attention to what they are saying, you can better understand their perspective and respond appropriately. Active listening involves more than simply hearing the words being spoken. It requires full engagement in the conversation, including nonverbal cues such as eye contact and body language. This enhances understanding by allowing you to pick up on emotions and hidden meanings behind what is being said. Additionally, active listening helps to establish trust between individuals, which forms the foundation for healthy relationships.
There are several techniques that can be employed when practicing active listening. One common technique is paraphrasing or summarizing what was said in your own words to ensure comprehension. Another technique is asking open-ended questions to encourage further elaboration on a topic. Avoiding distractions such as phones or other devices while engaging in conversations also shows respect for the speaker’s time and effort.
Despite its benefits, many people have misconceptions about active listening. Some believe it entails agreement with everything being said or sacrificing one’s own needs and desires for those of others. However, active listening does not require either of these things but rather promotes mutual understanding through respectful communication.
In conclusion, active listening offers numerous advantages when communicating with partners and parents alike. Incorporating techniques like paraphrasing and open-ended questioning can help facilitate effective dialogue while avoiding misunderstandings that lead to conflict. Remember that actively engaging in conversations demonstrates care and concern for both yourself and those around you—and ultimately leads to healthier relationships built on empathy and understanding.
Effective communication is vital in building and maintaining healthy relationships. One of the essential skills required for effective communication is active listening, which involves paying full attention to what the speaker is saying. Active listening goes beyond hearing words; it requires engaging with nonverbal cues such as body language and emotions to understand the underlying message. By practicing active listening, we can avoid misunderstandings that lead to conflicts.
To listen actively, one must demonstrate empathy and understanding towards others’ feelings. Emotional intelligence and self-awareness are key elements when trying to comprehend others’ emotions effectively. Understanding how our actions or words affect another person’s emotional state allows us to be more mindful and empathetic in our conversations. This kind of listening takes practice but can be achieved through patience and an open mind.
Nonviolent communication is a technique used to communicate compassionately by focusing on needs instead of demands. It promotes conflict resolution without resorting to aggression or intimidation tactics. Listening with empathy encourages mutual respect between individuals involved in conversation, leading to better outcomes than contentious exchanges that usually arise from lack of understanding.
In conclusion, listening with empathy and understanding provides numerous benefits in fostering healthy relationships with partners and parents alike. Through active listening techniques like paraphrasing, summarizing, asking questions, avoiding distractions while conversing will create a comfortable space where people feel heard, understood, respected- ultimately creating stronger bonds that last long term!
Avoiding Blame And Accusations
Conflict is a natural part of any relationship, but it doesn’t have to lead to negative outcomes. When it comes to avoiding conflict with your partner and parents, one fundamental principle is to avoid blame and accusations at all costs. This means taking responsibility for your own feelings and behavior rather than placing the burden on others.
Active listening techniques are essential in preventing misunderstandings that can escalate into conflicts. Active listening requires that you pay attention fully to what your partner or parent is saying without interrupting them or preparing your response while they speak. It involves paraphrasing their words back to them to ensure understanding and asking open-ended questions that invite further elaboration.
Avoiding defensiveness is another crucial element in averting conflicts. Defensiveness often stems from feeling attacked or criticized, which makes us want to protect ourselves by deflecting the blame onto others. Instead of becoming defensive, try acknowledging the other person’s perspective, expressing empathy towards their concerns, and seeking common ground where possible.
By incorporating these strategies into your communication style, you will be better equipped to navigate potential conflicts with your partner and parents.
Remember that avoiding blame and accusations takes practice, patience, and persistence – it won’t happen overnight! But with time and effort, you can create a healthier environment for yourself and those around you.
Transition: While active listening techniques and avoiding defensiveness are critical components in minimizing conflicts with loved ones, practicing patience and tolerance also plays an important role in creating harmonious relationships.
Practicing Patience And Tolerance
As much as we may try, avoiding conflicts with our partner and parents can sometimes feel like a daunting task.
We often find ourselves in situations where misunderstandings arise due to differences in opinions or values.
However, it is crucial to understand that every relationship requires patience and tolerance for it to thrive.
Developing mindfulness is one of the ways to practice patience and tolerance in any relationship.
Mindfulness involves being aware of your thoughts, emotions, and actions without judgment.
When you are mindful, you avoid reacting impulsively to situations that could potentially cause conflict with your partner or parents.
Instead, you take time to reflect on what triggers negative reactions within yourself and work towards addressing them.
Practicing self-care is also essential when trying to avoid conflicts with loved ones.
Taking care of yourself allows you to be more patient and tolerant towards others since you have already met your own needs.
Self-care activities such as exercise, meditation, or taking breaks from stressful situations help reduce stress levels that could lead to disagreements with your partner or parents.
In conclusion, practicing patience and tolerance is vital for maintaining healthy relationships with our partners and parents.
Developing mindfulness enables us to react less impulsively while practicing self-care ensures we are at our best emotional state when dealing with others.
The next step towards finding common ground is understanding how important communication is in building strong bonds between individuals.
Finding Common Ground
When it comes to relationships, it is inevitable that conflicts will arise. However, these conflicts can be avoided or resolved by finding common ground through compromises and sacrifices. This means both partners need to understand each other’s perspectives and priorities in order to reach a mutually beneficial solution.
The first step towards finding common ground is acknowledging that everyone has different views and values. It is important to respect those differences and try to see things from the other person’s point of view. By doing so, you may gain a better understanding of why they feel the way they do, which can help find a compromise that suits both parties.
Another important aspect of finding common ground is recognizing what matters most to each individual involved. Understanding your partner’s priorities allows you to make decisions together that align with both of your values. For example, if one partner prioritizes financial stability while the other prioritizes travel experiences, discussing ways to budget for both goals could lead to a compromise that fulfills both desires.
Lastly, compromising does not necessarily mean sacrificing everything you believe in or want out of the relationship. Instead, it involves making small adjustments here and there in order to create a happy medium between two differing opinions or preferences.
- Learning how to listen actively without interrupting.
- Empathizing with your partner’s emotions and feelings.
- Encouraging open communication about expectations.
- Recognizing when an argument needs outside assistance.
In summary, finding common ground requires learning how to communicate effectively with your partner and being willing to make compromises based on mutual understanding and respect for each other’s priorities.
Through active listening and empathetic conversation, couples can work together towards resolving conflict before it arises or addressing issues as they come up.
In the next section, we will explore setting boundaries and expectations as another tool for maintaining healthy relationships.
Setting Boundaries And Expectations
Finding common ground is essential in any relationship. However, it may not always be possible to agree on everything with your partner or parents. In such cases, establishing boundaries and setting expectations can help avoid conflicts.
Establishing boundaries means making clear what you are and aren’t comfortable with. It involves communicating your limits and sticking to them.
Setting expectations entails openly discussing what each party expects from the other person in terms of behavior or interactions. These two practices promote healthy communication because they reduce misunderstandings and misconceptions.
When setting boundaries and expectations, the parties involved should take into consideration their differences. Recognizing that everyone has different values, beliefs, personalities, experiences, and perspectives is crucial in avoiding conflicts.
For instance, if one partner enjoys spending time alone while the other prefers being around people all the time, setting a boundary for alone-time becomes necessary to prevent disagreements.
Respecting these differences requires acknowledging that there’s no right or wrong way of doing things; there are only preferences. When both partners accept this fact, they’re more likely to approach situations objectively rather than subjectively.
Moreover, when someone knows that their needs matter just as much as the other person’s needs do, they feel valued, understood and respected which improves relationships greatly over time.
Recognizing and respecting differences is vital in every relationship since it allows individuals to communicate effectively without feeling judged or isolated due to personal choices or behaviors. By understanding how to set boundaries and expectations appropriately while recognizing individuality among loved ones will lead towards healthier communication patterns between couple or family members alike leading towards long-term happiness together!
Recognizing And Respecting Differences
Cultural differences and generational gaps can be major sources of conflict between partners and parents. It is important to acknowledge these differences and work towards understanding them.
One way to do this is through compromise, where both parties are willing to give a little in order to reach a mutually beneficial solution.
When it comes to cultural differences, it is crucial for couples to recognize that each person brings their own unique background and experiences into the relationship. This means being open-minded and respectful of different customs, beliefs, and values.
By taking the time to learn about one another’s cultures, couples can gain a deeper appreciation for each other’s perspectives. Similarly, generational gaps can also lead to misunderstandings between parents and their adult children.
As societal norms and expectations change over time, there may be differing opinions on what constitutes appropriate behavior or decision-making. In these situations, it is important for both parties to approach the situation with empathy and understanding.
Ultimately, recognizing and respecting differences requires patience, compassion, and an openness to learning from others. While it may not always be easy, by working together towards mutual understanding and compromise, conflicts can often be resolved in a positive manner.
Transition: Understanding how our actions affect those around us is key when acknowledging and addressing feelings within relationships…
Acknowledging And Addressing Feelings
When it comes to relationships, conflicts are bound to happen. However, there are ways to avoid them and maintain healthy communication with your partner and parents.
One of the most important things you can do is acknowledge emotions and validate feelings. Acknowledging emotions means recognizing that both parties have feelings about a situation or issue. It involves listening actively without interrupting or making assumptions. Validating feelings is acknowledging those emotions as legitimate and understandable given the circumstances. This approach helps create an environment where individuals feel heard and understood.
Expressing concerns in a non-threatening manner can help prevent conflict from escalating. Using ‘I’ statements instead of accusatory language allows you to express your needs and desires without placing blame on the other person. Offering support through active listening, empathy, and compromise shows that you care about finding a solution together.
In summary, avoiding conflict requires effort from all parties involved. Acknowledging emotions, validating feelings, expressing concerns in a non-threatening way, and offering support are essential components of effective communication. By practicing these strategies regularly, you can create healthier relationships with your partner and parents based on mutual respect and understanding.
Another key aspect of healthy communication is using ‘I’ statements to express needs effectively rather than blaming others for their actions or behavior.
Using "I" Statements To Express Needs
Acknowledging and addressing feelings is an essential step in avoiding conflicts with your partner and parents. However, it is not always enough to prevent misunderstandings or disagreements. In such situations, active listening plays a crucial role in maintaining healthy relationships.
Active listening involves paying attention to what the other person is saying without interrupting or judging them. It requires us to focus on their words, tone of voice, and body language. By doing so, we can understand their perspective better and respond accordingly. This technique helps avoid misinterpretations that often lead to arguments.
Another way to minimize conflicts is through assertiveness training. Assertiveness means expressing our needs and opinions clearly while respecting others’ rights and boundaries. It allows us to communicate confidently without being aggressive or passive. When both partners practice assertiveness, they are more likely to find common ground rather than engage in power struggles.
In conclusion, acknowledging emotions and actively listening during conversations are necessary steps for avoiding conflict with loved ones. Additionally, learning how to be assertive can help you express yourself effectively without damaging your relationship’s foundation.
The next section will explore the importance of apologizing and forgiving as additional techniques for resolving conflicts within relationships.
Apologizing And Forgiving
Apologizing and Forgiving: Repairing Relationships and Moving Forward
Apologizing and forgiving are essential components of repairing relationships, whether it is with a partner or parent. An apology expresses remorse for any hurt caused by one’s words or actions, while forgiveness involves accepting the apology and moving forward from the situation.
Apologies can be difficult to make since they involve admitting fault; however, they serve as an acknowledgment of responsibility and show that one cares about the relationship.
Forgiveness is equally important in conflict resolution since it allows both parties to move forward from the incident without holding onto grudges or resentment. It does not mean forgetting what happened but rather acknowledging what occurred, learning from it, and deciding to let go of negative emotions associated with it.
When someone forgives another person, they release themselves from being trapped in anger and bitterness towards them.
It is crucial to recognize that apologizing alone may not repair all damage done to a relationship. The other party must accept the apology genuinely so that both individuals feel heard and understood. If there is difficulty accepting an apology, communication between both parties should continue until mutual understanding has been reached. Only then will true reconciliation occur.
In conclusion, apologizing and forgiving are vital aspects of repairing damaged relationships with partners or parents. They allow for positive progress after conflicts have arisen by showing care for each other’s feelings, releasing negativity associated with the incident, and working collaboratively towards a solution. With these steps taken into consideration, seeking mediation or counseling could provide further assistance in resolving any ongoing issues within the relationship.
Seeking Mediation Or Counseling
Apologizing and forgiving are essential skills in any relationship, but it may not always be enough to prevent conflicts from happening. When disagreements arise between a partner and their parents, finding common ground can prove difficult. It is important to recognize that there are times when seeking mediation or counseling may be necessary.
Mediation vs counseling: what’s the difference? Mediation involves using an impartial third party to help facilitate communication and reach agreements between two parties. In contrast, counseling focuses on addressing underlying issues through therapy sessions with a mental health professional. Both approaches have their unique benefits and drawbacks, so it is essential to understand which one will work best for your specific situation.
If you opt for a DIY approach instead of seeking professional help, remember that building trust and intimacy takes time and effort. A key factor in avoiding conflict is maintaining open lines of communication. This means actively listening to each other’s concerns without judgment or defensiveness.
Another effective strategy is setting boundaries by acknowledging everyone’s needs while also respecting personal space and autonomy.
In conclusion, resolving conflicts within relationships requires patience, understanding, and sometimes outside assistance. Whether choosing mediation or counseling, taking steps towards reconciliation can lead to stronger bonds built on mutual respect and empathy. With diligent effort dedicated to clear communication and boundary-setting practices, tensions between partners and parents can dissolve into more harmonious interactions over time.
Building Trust And Intimacy
In the wise words of Aristotle, “Trust is the foundation of all human relationships”.
Building trust in a relationship requires effort and time. Trust can be built by being consistent with your actions and words, avoiding secrets or lies, showing empathy towards your partner’s feelings, and respecting each other’s boundaries. When you put efforts into building trust with your partner, it creates an environment for intimacy to thrive.
Intimacy is not just physical; it also involves emotional connection between partners. Nurturing emotional intimacy includes regularly spending quality time together, engaging in open conversations about your interests or concerns without judgment, expressing gratitude and appreciation towards each other often.
Physical intimacy strengthens the bond that couples share. Expressing love through gentle touch, hugs or kisses reinforces positive emotions.
Building trust: tips and strategies
1) Communication – Effective communication helps build mutual understanding leading to increased trust.
2) Consistency – Keeping promises and being reliable builds confidence in the relationship.
3) Vulnerability – Sharing personal experiences helps create an empathetic connection.
4) Forgiveness – Being willing to forgive shows that you value the relationship more than holding onto grudges.
Nurturing emotional and physical intimacy leads to deeper connections between partners. Regularly communicating using open-ended questions encourages honest expression of thoughts while active listening fosters empathy between partners. Finally, maintaining open and honest communication forms the basis for any healthy long-term romantic partnership.
Maintaining Open And Honest Communication
Building trust and intimacy within a romantic relationship is essential to avoid conflicts with your partner and parents. Trust, in particular, helps establish comfort and security between two individuals. Intimacy creates emotional closeness that can help you understand each other’s perspectives better. However, maintaining these elements of a relationship requires effort from both parties.
One way to maintain open communication and prevent misunderstandings or disagreements is by using active listening techniques. Active listening means paying full attention to the person speaking without interrupting them. The goal is to fully comprehend their message before responding. This technique also involves asking questions for clarification and summarizing what was said to ensure that both parties are on the same page.
Nonverbal communication cues are equally important when it comes to avoiding conflict with loved ones. Nonverbal cues include facial expressions, tone of voice, body language, and eye contact. These signals convey emotions such as anger, sadness or happiness when words fail us. Understanding nonverbal cues can provide valuable insights into how someone feels about a situation beyond what they say verbally.
In conclusion, building trust and intimacy through active listening techniques and understanding nonverbal communication cues are vital components of maintaining healthy relationships with partners and parents alike. It takes time and effort to build strong bonds that allow for mutual respect even during difficult times. When we actively listen while being mindful of non-verbal cues; we create an environment where conflicts are less likely to arise because everyone understands each other’s perspective more clearly than if they just spoke without consideration for feelings or thoughts outside our own minds!
Frequently Asked Questions
What Should I Do If My Partner Or Parents Are Constantly Bringing Up Past Mistakes Or Conflicts?
When dealing with a partner or parents who constantly bring up past mistakes or conflicts, it is important to have forgiveness strategies and emotional regulation techniques in place.
Forgiveness can be achieved by acknowledging the harm caused, expressing remorse, making amends when possible, and committing to not repeat the behavior.
Emotional regulation techniques such as deep breathing exercises or taking a break from the conversation can also help manage intense emotions and prevent escalation of conflict.
It is crucial to communicate openly and assertively while maintaining respect for each other’s feelings and perspectives.
By practicing forgiveness and emotional regulation, individuals can work towards resolving past issues and fostering healthier relationships moving forward.
How Can I Communicate My Needs And Boundaries Without Coming Across As Demanding Or Controlling?
Effective communication is an essential aspect of any healthy relationship.
To communicate one’s needs and boundaries effectively, it is recommended to use euphemism techniques while speaking with their partner or parents.
Active listening should also be employed to understand the other person’s perspective better.
Setting expectations beforehand can help avoid misunderstandings that may lead to conflicts in the future.
Additionally, using ‘I’ statements rather than accusatory language can prevent defensiveness from either party involved.
Understanding nonverbal cues such as body language and tone of voice can further enhance communication effectiveness by providing insight into concealed emotions or intentions.
Overall, approaching communication with empathy and respect is key for maintaining positive relationships between partners and parents alike.
What If My Partner Or Parents Are Not Willing To Compromise Or Find Common Ground?
When faced with a partner or parents who are not willing to compromise or find common ground, it is important to approach the situation with a mindset of finding solutions, not blame.
This means shifting focus from assigning fault to actively seeking ways to resolve the conflict at hand.
Additionally, seeking understanding rather than agreement can help foster open communication and lead to a more productive outcome.
It may be helpful to set aside personal differences in order to work towards a mutually beneficial solution.
Ultimately, effective conflict resolution requires patience, empathy, and a willingness to engage in constructive dialogue.
How Can I Prevent Conflicts From Escalating Into Arguments Or Hurtful Behavior?
Effective communication is key in preventing conflicts from escalating into arguments or hurtful behavior.
Active listening, where one carefully listens and acknowledges the other person’s perspective, can help to de-escalate a situation before it becomes too heated.
It is also helpful to have conflict resolution strategies in place such as identifying the root cause of the issue, brainstorming solutions together, and finding common ground.
Additionally, taking breaks during disagreements can give both parties time to cool down and approach the situation with a clearer mindset.
By utilizing these techniques, individuals can prevent conflicts from reaching a point of no return and maintain healthy relationships with their partners and parents.
What Should I Do If My Partner Or Parents Are Not Receptive To Apologies Or Forgiveness?
When attempting to repair relationships with a partner or parents who are not receptive to apologies or forgiveness, it is important for individuals to focus on rebuilding trust and moving forward.
This may involve taking responsibility for one’s actions, showing genuine remorse, and actively working towards making amends.
However, it is also important to recognize that the process of healing may take time and require patience and persistence.
Individuals should strive to communicate openly and honestly with their loved ones while also respecting boundaries and allowing space for emotions to be processed.
Ultimately, successfully repairing damaged relationships requires a willingness to listen, learn, and grow together as individuals and as a unit.
When navigating relationships with our partners and parents, conflicts can arise. It is important to approach these situations with empathy and understanding, while also setting clear boundaries for ourselves.
In order to avoid conflict, it may be helpful to communicate openly and honestly about our needs and concerns in a calm and respectful manner. When faced with past mistakes or ongoing conflicts, it is important to focus on finding common ground and seeking compromise rather than placing blame or becoming defensive.
By taking responsibility for our own actions and acknowledging the perspectives of others, we can work towards resolving conflicts without causing further harm. Ultimately, building healthy relationships requires patience, understanding, and a willingness to put in the effort necessary to maintain positive communication and connection over time.